Psaní esejů

1. Useful Essay Words and Phrases in General
2. How to Write a Book Review 

1. Useful Essay Words and Phrases

Certain words are used to link ideas and to signpost the reader the direction your line of reasoning is about to take, such as adding more emphasis, or introducing an alternative point of view.

Below is a selection of words used to link ideas, depending on the direction of your argument.


Making an Introduction

First of all

At the outset

To start with


Adding more to a point already made


furthermore; again

what is more;

in addition


above all;

as well (as)

either; neither…nor;

not only…but also;



in the same way;


in fact;


in reality,

as for; as to;

with respect to;



Useful phrases to introduce quotations (X=Name)

as X points out,…

According to X,…

To quote from X, ‘…’

X states/suggests that…

X tells/shows us that…

In an article entitled ‘Name of Text’, X makes the point that…

Referring to …, X argues that

As X stated/wrote/argued/discussed/expressed the concern, …

In ( Name of Text), X primarily suggests …

Whilst acknowledging … X makes the significant claim that …

Writing in 1926, X argued that …


Useful phrases to follow quotations

However, Y suggests that

Yet this does not go far enough

This seems untenable because

This theory best fits the known facts, since…


Introducing examples

for example; for instance; namely; an example of this is

and; as follows; as in the following examples; such as; including

especially; particularly; in particular; notably; chiefly; mainly; mostly


Giving a series of examples

first(ly); second(ly); third(ly)

another;yet another; in addition; finally

next; then;


Final examples

to conclude;




Putting the same idea in a different way

in other words;

to put it (more) simply

in view of this;

to look at this another way


Introducing an alternative viewpoint

by contrast;


another possibility is

on the one hand…on the other hand


in comparison;

on the contrary;


Returning to emphasise your earlier viewpoint

however; nonetheless; in the final analysis; despite this; notwithstanding; in spite of this

while this may be true



Showing the results of something



as a result

so, (then,) it can be seen that




for this reason;

it follows that

this implies


Summing up or concluding



my conclusion is

In short;

In conclusion; to conclude;


To summarise; To sum up; in brief; overall, in sum


adapted from Stella Cottrell The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003) 


2. How to Write a Book Review 


  1. PLAN what you going to write in the five paragraphs
  2. READ a book
  3. CHECK the review for mistakes (grammar, punctuation, and spelling)

Paragraph 1 - Introduction

The name of the book, the author, you can mention any prizes it won, any film that is based on this book, etc.

Paragraph 2 – Set the scene

Where and when it was set, the genre

Paragraph 3 - The plot

  • What was the story about?
  • Who were the main characters?
  • Were the characters credible?
  • What did the main characters do in the story?
  • Did the main characters run into any problems? Adventures?
  • Who was your favourite character? Why?

Paragraph 3 - Your personal experiences

  • Could you relate to any of the characters in the story?
  • Have you ever done or felt some of the things, the characters did?

Paragraph 4 - Your opinion

  • Did you like the book?
  • What was your favourite part of the book?
  • Do you have a least favourite part of the book?
  • If you could change something, what would it be? (If you wish you could change the ending, don't reveal it!)

Paragraph 5 - Your recommendation

  • Would you recommend this book to another person?
  • What type of person would like this book?
  • Why you recommend this film?

Useful language: describing a book

It was written by…

It is set in …

There is a famous film based on this book…

The story is about …

My favourite part of the book is …


Note: You don't have to answer every question -- they're suggestions!